Regarding 2,087 basic-12 months students exactly who undergone an over-all https://datingranking.net/de/dating-sites-fur-erwachsene/ test (pre-university) and you may finished questionnaires within Fitness Solution Cardio out of Okayama School in the , step 1,396 college students volunteered to get a beneficial step three-12 months pursue-right up test ahead of graduation into the (follow-upwards price; 66.9%). Because of it analysis, i experienced professionals with good Bmi from ? twenty-five.0 kg yards ?dos as heavy (16) . We omitted 82 people who were heavy (Bmi ? 25 kilogram m ?2 ) in the its baseline health test. In the end, analysis from one,314 students (676 male and you can 638 people; 65.3%) was in fact reviewed. The research was authorized by the Integrity Committee off Okayama University Graduate School away from Treatments, Dentistry and you can Drug Sciences (Zero. 306). Composed consent try extracted from the users.
Assessment off fat/carrying excess fat
In the all around health examination, the newest peak and the body pounds from members have been mentioned by the university’s public fitness nurses making use of the Tanita surplus fat analyser (Model Zero. BF-220; Tanita, Tokyo, Japan). Body mass index is actually computed since the lbs inside kilograms split of the top within the meters squared (23) .
Players said rate from dining relative to anyone else, predicated on one of four qualitative kinds: slow, regular, quick, and also quick. New validity and you can reliability of survey is verified and useful comparing contacts ranging from thinking-reported restaurants speed and you can obesity (24) . We joint quick and extremely prompt responses to the one group of food easily and you may slow and you can normal solutions for the an individual sounding eating slow (8) .
To many other lifetime items, answers got by the members from inside the a beneficial “yes/no” structure as follows: an unequal diet plan (i.elizabeth., irregular mealtime), bypassing breakfast, restaurants up to full, frequently snacking and/otherwise restaurants at night, seem to taking fats, appear to dinner green vegetables, appear to dinner junk food, appear to restaurants sweets, frequently ingesting (sugar-sweetened) soft drinks, typical exercise, and you may chronic drinking (sixteen, 20) . The survey is actually used within standard.
Paired t, unpaired t, Fisher’s exact, and chi-squared tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences between baseline and re-examination, or normal weight and overweight groups. Using a logistic regression model, both odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Being overweight at the 3-year follow-up was used as a dependent variable. Gender, eating quickly, and frequently consuming fatty foods at baseline were added as independent variables on multivariate analysis according to the guidelines of a previous study (25) . All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (21.0J for Windows; SPSS Japan, Tokyo, Japan). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
There were no significant differences in prevalence of eating quickly and body composition at baseline between participants who were followed up and those who were not (data not shown). Table 1 shows the characteristics of participants. Overall, 207 male (30.2%) and 198 female (31.0%) participants reported eating quickly. Of the 38 participants (2.9%) who became overweight, none were obese (BMI ? 30 kg m ?2 ). There was a significant difference in body composition between baseline and re-examination data (P < 0.05).
- a hateful ± standard deviation.
- bP < 0.05, paired t test. Baseline vs. after 3 years.
- cP < 0.05, ? 2 test.
- dn (%).
In both male and female participants, a higher prevalence of those who ate quickly was observed in the overweight group compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.05). The prevalence of participants who ate quickly and frequently consumed fatty foods was significantly higher in the overweight group than in the normal weight group (P < 0.05).
- an enthusiastic (%).